Virtual Kollage: GOVERNMENT

GOVERNMENT

Obama Barack Obama President Man President


The term Government can be understood in three different ways - as an institution of state, as an art of governing and as an academic field of study. By the end of the entire programme, the candidate would be able to define the concept of government and show his or her understanding of the principles, institutions and processes; recognize his or her role as an informed citizen; evaluate the successes, failures and problems of governments and appreciate the role of his or her country as a member of the international community. Above all, the candidate would be able to pass his or her examination with flying colours. 

THE SCOPE OF GOVERNMENT
The definition and features of Government.
Theories of the origin of government.
Why it is necessary to study government. 
What is a nation and what are its feature? 
Definition and features of a state. 
Functions of a state. 
Why people obey the laws of the state. 
Why some citizens disobey the laws of the state. 
The difference between a nation and a state. 

Public Opinion
Definition and how to measure public opinion
The importance of public opinion 
Problems associated with public opinion 
How newspapers contribute to the formation of public opinion
Limitations of newspapers in the formation of public opinion
The agencies of public opinion
Opinion Polls: definition and advantages
Disadvantages of opinion polls

Pressure Groups
Pressure Group: definition and types 
Importance of pressure groups 
The functions of pressure groups 
The methods employed by pressure groups to achieve their aim

Citizenship
Citizenship: definition and acquisition 
Definition and types of rights 
Rights or liberties of citizens 
Methods used in protecting the rights of citizens 
Circumstances under which rights can be curtailed 
Duties and obligations of citizens 

ORGANS OF GOVERNMENT
The Judiciary
the definition of and Functions of the Judiciary 
Arguments against Judicial Review 
How to ensure Judicial Independence 
A comparison between the traditional and modern judicial system 

The Legislature
The functions of the Legislature 
The limitations of the powers of the Legislature
The advantages of a unicameral legislature 
The disadvantages of the unicameral system of government 
The advantages of a bicameral legislature 
The disadvantages of a bicameral legislature 
The stages through which a bill passes to become law 
The functions of the Speaker of Parliament 
The advantages of delegated Legislation 
The disadvantages of Delegated Legislation 
How Delegated Legislation is controlled
The concept of the Supremacy of Parliament 
Limitations on the Supremacy of Parliament 

The executive
The functions of the executive 
How the executive arm of government is controlled 
The functions powers of the Cabinet in a cabinet system of government 
Why the powers of the executive has been increasing in recent years 
The functions and powers of the Prime Minister
The functions of the Prime Minister  
The limitations of the Prime Minister 
The features of the office of the ombudsman 
The advantages of a centralized system of government 
The disadvantages of a centralized system of government 
The advantages of decentralization 
The disadvantages of decentralization 
The advantages of devolution 
Disadvantages of devolution 


ELECTORAL SYSTEMS
The disadvantages of an absolute majority
Factors that determine the electoral success of a political party 
The advantages of universal adult suffrage
The disadvantages of universal adult suffrage

VOTING
Types of voting 
The importance of voting 
Reasons why people abstain from voting 
The advantages and disadvantages of compulsory voting 
The advantages and disadvantages of lowering the voting age to 18


ELECTORAL COMMISSION
The functions of the Electoral Commission
The problems of the Electoral Commission
Solutions to the problems of the Electoral Commission 

BASIC POLITICAL CONCEPTS
Fascism
Fascism: definition and features 
Advantages and disadvantages of fascism 

Capitalism
The main features of capitalism 
The advantages of capitalism 
The disadvantages of capitalism 

Socialism
The characteristics of socialism 
The advantages of socialism 
The disadvantages of socialism

Democracy
The features of democracy
The advantages of democracy
The disadvantages of democracy 

Feudalism 
The features of feudalism
The advantages of feudalism 
The disadvantages of feudalism

SYSTEMS OF GOVERNMENT
Republican System
Republican government: definition and features 
The advantages and disadvantages of a republican system of government 
Advantages of a republican system of government 

Parliamentary System 
Parliamentary system: definition and features 
The advantages and disadvantages of the parliamentary system 
Why African countries find it difficult to practice parliamentary system 
The functions and powers of the Prime Minister under the parliamentary system of government 

Presidential System
The features of a presidential system of government 
Advantages and disadvantages of the Presidential system

Liberal Democracy
Liberal Democracy: definition and features 

Federal system of government
Federation: definition, features etc.  
Conditions for the adoption of a federation 
Advantages and disadvantages of a federation 
Why Nigeria adopted the federal system of government 

Unitary system
Unitary system: definition and advantages 
Conditions necessary for adopting a unitary system 
Disadvantages of the unitary system 
Why Ghana adopted a unitary system of government 

Confederal system
The features of a confederal system of government 
The advantages of a confederal system of government 
The disadvantages of a confederal system of government

Public Corporations
The features of Public Corporations
The functions of Public Corporations
Control of Public Corporations

Rule of Law
The features of Rule of Law 
Conditions necessary for Rule of Law to operate in a country 
Factors that militate against the practice of Rule of Law in the world 
The advantages of Rule of Law 
The practice of Rule of Law in Nigeria 
The practice of Rule of Law in Ghana 
How Rule of Law is practiced in Sierra Leone  
Factors that prevent the practice of Rule of Law in Sierra Leone 
Factors preventing Rule of Law in Liberia 
The factors that militate against Rule of Law in Ghana 
How Rule of Law was practiced under Yahya Jammeh of the Gambia 
Factors that limit Rule of Law in The Gambia 
Factors against Rule of Law in Nigeria 

Separation of Powers
The merits of Separation of Powers 
The demerits of separation of Powers 
Separation of Powers in a Parliamentary system of government
How Separation of Powers operates in a Presidential system

LOCAL GOVERNMENT 
Functions of Local Government
Advantages of Local Government

Types of Local Governments
The advantages and disadvantages of the Conicliar system of Local Government 
The features of the conciliar type of Local Government 
The features of the City Manager type of Local Government 
Functions of the City Manager 
Advantages of the City Manager type of Local Government 
Disadvantages of the City Manager type of Local Government 
The features of the Prefectorial system of Local Government 

Constitution
The sources of a constitution 
The functions of a constitution 
The features and functions of a constitutional convention 

Party Systems 
The advantages of a one-party system
The disadvantages of a one-party system 
The advantages of a two-party system 
The advantages of a multi-party system 
The disadvantages of a multi-party system


PRE-COLONIAL POLITICAL SYSTEMS IN GHANA
Akan
Features of the pre-colonial Akan political system 
Democratic elements in the pre-colonial Akan political system 
Functions of the political leaders during the pre-colonial era in West Africa 
How chiefs controlled their subjects during the pre-colonial days 
Functions of the Queen Mother during the pre-colonial era among the Akans of Ghana  
Comparing the judicial system of the pre-colonial and the modern era 
How Chiefs were controlled in the pre-colonial era 

Ewe
The pre-colonial political structure of the Ewe ethnic group in Ghana 

Mole-Dagbani 
The pre-colonial political organization of the Mole-Dagbani ethnic group of Ghana

PRE-COLONIAL POLITICAL SYSTEMS IN NIGERIA
Yoruba 
How chiefs controlled their subjects in the pre-colonial days 
The political structure of the Yoruba in the pre-colonial period  
Checks an balances within the Yoruba pre-colonial political structure 
Functions of the Oyo Mesi in the Yoruba pre-colonial political structure 

Igbo 
The political Structure of the Igbo pre-colonial society

Hausa/Fulani 
The political structure of the Hausa/Fulani pre-colonial society

PRE-COLONIAL POLITICAL ORGANIZATION IN THE GAMBIA
Mandingo
Pre-colonial political structure of the Mandingo in the Gambia

Wolof
The pre-colonial political structure of the Wolof of the Gambia

PRE-COLONIAL POLITICAL SYSTEMS IN SIERRA LEONE 
Mende
The pre-colonial political structure of the Mendes of Sierra Leone

PRE-INDEPENDENT POLITICAL SYSTEMS IN LIBERIA 
Vai
The political organization of the Vai ethnic group before the independence of Liberia 

Kru 
The political organization of the Kru ethnic group on Liberia

THE ROLE OF CHIEFS DURING THE COLONIAL PERIOD
The role of chiefs during the colonial era 
How chiefs were controlled during the colonial period 

THE ROLE OF CHIEFS DURING THE POST COLONIAL ERA 
The role of chiefs under British colonial rule
How chiefs were controlled under British colonial rule
The Provincial Council of Chiefs under the 1925 Constitution of the Gold Coast 
Why the powers of chiefs declined under British colonial rule 

THE ROLE OF CHIEFS IN MODERN DAY GHANA
Why chiefs cannot do active politics in Ghana 
The role of chiefs in modern Ghana 

THE CROWN COLONY SYSTEM OF ADMINISTRATION
The features of the Crown Colony system of administration 
Functions and powers of the Secretary of State for the Colonies
The Governor under Crown colony system 
The Legislative Council under the Crown Colony system 
The Executive Council under the Crown Colony system 
The functions of the Provincial Council of Chiefs under the 1925 Gold Coast constitution 

THE FRENCH COLONY
The structure of French Colonial administration in West Africa 
The functions and powers of the minister of the colonies in French West Africa 
The privileges, responsibilities and limitations between citizens and subjects in French West Africa 
The features of forced labour in French West Africa
The features of Loi cadre in French West Africa
The Brazzaville Conference of 1944
Compare and contrast the British and the French colonial system of administration in West Africa 
The functions of chiefs in French West Africa 
Compare the chiefs in french and British West Africa 
The functions and powers and limitations of the Governor-General in French Colonial Africa 
The functions of the Lieutenant-General in French West Africa 
The functions of the Commandant du Cercle 

PRE - INDEPENDENCE CONSTITUTIONS IN BRITISH WEST AFRICA
Ghana
Features of the Clifford constitution of the Gold Coast 
The problems of the Clifford constitution 
The features and problems of the Guggisberg constitution
The main features and problems of the Burns constitution
The causes of the 1948 riots in the Gold Coast 
The features of the Arden Clarke constitution of Ghana in 1951
Features of the Kwame Nkrumah constitution  

Nigeria
The features of the Macpherson constitution 
the weaknesses of the Macpherson constitution of Nigeria 
The features of the Lyttleton constitution 
Advantages of the Lyttleton constitution 
Disadvantages of the Lyttleton constitution 
Features of the Richard constitution 
Problems of the Richard constitution 
The limitations of the Clifford constitution of Nigeria 
Causes of the Action Group crisis in Nigeria 
The causes of the Nigerian Civil War 
The positive consequences of the Nigerian civil war 
The negative consequences of the Nigerian civil war 
The reasons for the military intention in Nigeria 
The causes of the Action Group crisis of 1962 

Sierra Leone
The features of the 1924 Slater constitution of Sierra Leone 
The functions and powers of the Governor under the 1924 constitution of Sierra Leone 
The main features of the 1947 constitution of Sierra Leone

The Gambia
The main features of the 1947 constitution of the Gambia
The main features of the 1951 constitution of the Gambia 
The main features of the 1954 constitution of the Gambia
The main features of the 1960 constitution of the Gambia

INDEPENDENT CONSTITUTION OF BRITISH WEST AFRICAN COUNTRIES 
Nigeria at independent
The main features of the 1960 independent constitution of Nigeria

The main functions of the National Assembly under the 1960 independence constitution of Nigeria 
The functions of the Governor-General under the 1960 independent constitution of Nigeria
The functions of the Prime Minster under the 1960 independent constitution of Nigeria

The Gambia
The main features of the 1965 independent constitution of the Gambia
The functions of the Governor-General under the 1965 independence constitution of the Gambia 
The functions of the Prime Minister under the 1965 independence constitution of the Gambia 

POST-INDEPENDENT CONSTITUTIONS OF BRITISH WEST AFRICAN COUNTRIES

Nigeria
The reasons why Nigeria opted for a republican constitution

Ghana
The reasons why Ghana adopted a republican form of government 
The features of the 1960 Republican constitution of Ghana 
The functions and powers of the president under the 1960 republican constitution of Ghana
The functions and powers of the National Assembly under the 1960 Republican constitution of Ghana 
The structure and functions of the Judiciary under the 1960 republican constitution of Ghana 
The independence of the judiciary under the 1960 republican constitution

CIVIL SERVICE
The problems with the Civil Service in Nigeria 

NATIONALISM
The features of proto-nationalism 
The factors that promoted proto-nationalism 
The factors that promoted modern nationalism 
The effects of radical nationalist activities in West Africa 
The aims and objectives of the Fante Confederacy 
The aims and achievements of the Fante Confederacy of the Gold Coast
The problems of the Fante Confederacy 
The aims and objectives of the Aborigines' Rights Protection Society 
The achievements of the Aborigines' Rights Protection Society 
The problems of the Aborigines' Rights Protection Society 
The aims and objectives of the National Congress of British West Africa 
The achievements of the National Congress of British West Africa 
The problems of the National Congress of British West Africa 
The demands of the National Congress of British West Africa 


POST-INDEPENDENT NIGERIA
The causes of the Nigerian Civil War
The negative effects of the Nigerian Civil War 
 
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
The United Nations Organizations
Objectives and achievements 
The Problems of the United Nations Organization 
The Secretary-General of the United Nations 
The General Assembly of the United Nations Organization 
The Security Council of the United nations Organization 
The Security Council of the U.N. (Another Lecture) 
The Secretariat of the United Nations Organization 
The Economic and Social Council of the United Nations 
The International Court of Justice of the United Nations 
The Veto Power of the Security Council 

The Commonwealth of Nations
Features of the Commonwealth of Nations 
Benefits to be derived from membership of the Commonwealth 
Achievements of the Commonwealth of Nations 

The Economic Community of West African States
Aims and objectives of ECOWAS 
Achievements of ECOWAS
Problems of ECOWAS
Suggestions for improving ECOWAS
Ghana's contributions towards the activities of ECOWAS
Benefits Ghana hopes to derive from her membership of ECOWAS 
ECOWAS Monitoring Group: Aims, objectives and achievements 
Problems faced by the ECOWAS Monitoring Group (ECOMOG)

Institutions of ECOWAS
Authority of Heads of State and their functions


African Union
African Union - Objectives 
African Union - Achievements and Problems
Ghana's contribution to the African Union

Organs of the African Union
The Assembly of Heads of State of the African Union  
The Executive Council of the African Union 
The aims and objectives of the African Union 
The achievements and problems of the African Union 
The composition, aims and functions of the Pan-African Parliament of the African Union 
Why African Union was formed to replace the O.A.U. 
The benefits Ghana derives from her membership of the African Union 
The functions and powers of the Commission of the African Union 
The functions and powers of the Peace and Security Council of the A.U.  
The functions of the Specialized Technical Committees of the African Union 
The functions of the Permanent Representative Council of the African Union 
The African Court of Justice 

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
Why nations cooperate with each other at the international level 
Why Ghana cooperates with other nations 

FOREIGN POLICY OF RESPECTIVE CANDIDATES' COUNTRIES 
Ghana
The factors that determine Ghana's foreign policy 
The advantages of Ghana's foreign policy

Sierra Leone 
Factors that determine Sierra Leone's foreign policy 
The advantages of Sierra Leone's foreign policy 
The disadvantages of Sierra Leone's foreign policy

COLONIALISM
Reasons for colonizing West Africa 

Crown colony system of administration
Features of the crown colony system
Secretary of state for the colonies 
The Governor 
The Legislative Council 
The Executive Council 

Indirect Rule
The features of Indirect Rule
Why Indirect Rule was adopted by the British in West Africa  
How Indirect Rule operated in Northern Nigeria 
How Indirect Rule operated in the Gold Coast 
The advantages of Indirect Rule 
The disadvantages of Indirect Rule 
Why Indirect Rule succeeded in Northern Nigeria 
Why Indirect Rule failed in Southern Nigeria 
Why Indirect Rule was opposed by the educated elite 

NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
The features of the Non-Aligned Movement 
Why Nigeria is seen as a member of the Non-Aligned Movement 
Why some countries do not practice the principles of non-alignment 

POST INDEPENDENT CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN BRITISH COLONIAL WEST AFRICA
Ghana
The main features of the 1957 independent constitution of Ghana
The functions, powers and limitations of the Governor-General under the 1957 independent constitution of Ghana
The functions, powers and limitations of the Prime Minister under the 1957 independent constitution of Ghana

THE MILITARY IN POLITICS
Reasons for the military intervention in Nigeria 
How to prevent the military from venturing into politics 

POLITICAL PARTIES
The structure of political parties in West Africa 
The functions of political parties 
The problems of political parties in Africa 
The features of mass parties 
The features of elite parties 
Why the one-party system is no longer popular in Africa 
The factors that determine the electoral success of a political party 
The importance of a political party manifesto 

ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT (E-GOVERNMENT)
What is E-government and what tools are used in deploying it?
The factors that must be in existence for a successful deployment of e-government 
Institutions in Ghana that have rolled out e-government 

GREEN POLITICS
The features of green politics 
Why green parties cannot win elections in Africa

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