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Explaining organizing and the steps involved in organizing

Definition of Organizing 
Organizing is both a process and function of management. It aims to determine and define which role each individual in the organization will play towards the attainment of the firm’s objective. In doing so, the organizing function of management establishes authority- responsibility relationships among employees; and makes provision for co-ordination in the company so that the firm is able to function as a unit. Here are some definitions offered by renowned authors.

According to Koontz and O ‘Donnell, “Organizing is the establishment of authority relationships with provisions for co-ordination between them, both vertically and horizontally in the enterprise structure”.

In the view of Louis A. Allen. “Organizing is the process of identifying and grouping the work to be performed, defining and delegating the responsibility and authority and establishing a pattern of relationship for the purpose of enabling people work most effectively to accomplish the objective”.

A manager who is trying to organize will typically follow the following steps.

Step 1. Determining the total volume of work which the firm must do
The first step in organizing is when management must identify the total work load or activities which must be performed for the business to achieve its objectives.  At this stage the manager estimates the work necessary to get the business to where it aims to be in terms of its corporate goal. This step must precede all the steps because it is only by knowing what work must be done that one is able to decide who/how many/ for how long to employ someone to get it done.
Step 2 Creating a Departmentation (Grouping and Sub-Grouping of Activities)
After determining the total activities needed to be done to get the firm to its targets, organizing must be able to categorize the work into groups or simply putting those activities that are related into same groups. Another way to categorize the total work is to put those activities that can be easily performed together into the same group. Classifying work which are similar or related into same groups or subgroups will directly lead to the creation of departments in the firm. If we compare running a  business to putting up a building, then the creation of various department can be likened to creating rooms; each for serving a special purpose or housing a special activities, records or functions.
 Step 3 Delegating of Authority
Next to creating departments or classifying the business activities into groups is the process of entrusting responsibility of overseeing each department into the appropriate hands; (a distinct manager) who must be charged with the duty to ensure that the department functions as required.  Creating the role of managership in this way involves what we call delegation of authority to each departmental head who must carry out specifically assigned role. 
Step 4 Dividing the Work Load within each Department
It is not often possible for a single individual to perform the entire work assigned to one department. As a result, work load within the various departments must be divided in such a way that each person or group of persons executes only one part of activities under the department. This division of work-assignment within department results is what is termed a human organization within the enterprise.
Step 5 Providing Physical Facilities for Employees within each Departmental (Setting-Up-Material Organization)
Every one working in the firm would need some basic material facilities; raw material, technology, machines or tools regardless of the department one must work in; or the capacity in which one must work. These inputs are vital for work assigned to be done properly. Making facilities available to workers within the company will result in what is called material organization also sometimes known as physical-technical organization
Step 6 Defining Authority-Responsibility Relationships
Following the creation of departments, organizing materials and assigned roles to people within the firm, the organizing function must now go a step further to define who should be responsible for who. In other words, who is a subordinate and who is the superior. The process of defining responsibility or authority relationship between personnel throughout the organization ensures that the question of who answers to who is clarified. 

The levels of management decision
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