Posted by / Saturday 31 December 2016 / No comments

The causes of low agricultural production in Ghana

The land holding system

One of the major causes of low agricultural productivity is the type of land tenure system that is in vogue in Ghana. The land is owned by the people but held in trust by traditional rulers and heads of family. Over the years, these lands have been given out to members of family for various purposes so people have entitlement to splinters of land in the various communities. It is therefore difficult to acquire land tracks of land for large agricultural production.

Reluctance to commercially develop the land
Following from the point above, those who might want to commercially develop the land for large scale agricultural production are unwilling to do so. This is because, they are not too sure if their investment is safe. A business man could irrigate the large track of land that he acquires but what would be the status of the land after the lease ends? He is not too sure and this contributes to the level of agricultural production.

Lack of funds
Another major factor contributing to low agricultural production in Ghana is the absence of adequate financial resources to invest in the venture.  To be able to produce much, the farmer must plough large tracks of land, acquire the best seeds or seedlings, and apply fertilizer. All these require money which the farmer may not have. Therefore he cannot produce as much as possible.

Absence of adequate credit facilities from the banks
The banks in Ghana are not too willing to extend credit facility to the farmers. This is sometimes due to the fact that they do not have the requisite guarantee or collateral. The banks think that extending credit to the farmers is a risky venture so they are reluctant to do so. This is also a problem affecting productivity in Ghana.

Aging of the farmers
The population census of Ghana indicates that there are older people engaged in agriculture that the younger ones. They do not have the strength to produce as much as the nation requires. The younger ones too are not willing to enter into agriculture and there are few attractive programmes to draw them into agriculture. All these affect the level of production.

Inadequate pest control
Some Ghanaian farmers suffer from pest attacks which destroy their entire crop production. This constitutes a disincentive to the farmer. There are also diseases that affect livestock. Farmers can lose an entire stock of animals because of disease. When such things happen, they bring the level of agricultural production down.

Post harvest loses
Another source of low agricultural productivity is post harvest loses. There are inadequate storage facilities to store the harvest after production. So if it is tomatoes, they get rotten at the farm-gates during gluts. The nation is not able to process enough of it for rainy days.  

1. Account for the factors that affect agricultural productivity in Ghana.

2. Highlight six factors that contribute to low agricultural productivity in Ghana.

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