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The determinants of Ghana's foreign policy

Flagstaff House Accra Ghana Monument Afric

The historical factor
Historically, Ghana was colonized by Britain, and other countries in Africa were colonized by France, Portugal and Germany. One of Ghana’s foreign policy directions is to spear-head the decolonization of the African continent and the attainment of political independence for all countries still under domination by another country.

Geographical location
Ghana is geographically located in the middle of three Franco-phone countries and the Atlantic Ocean. This has greatly influenced her foreign policy. This policy has been geared toward the promotion of friendly relations with all her neighbours.

Cultural similarity
In the demarcation of Africa during the bond of 1844, the colonialists did not give consideration to the languages and cultures of the people. Consequently, many tribes with similar cultures and languages were split into two with each to either side of the divide. Ghana’s foreign policy is influence by this event so that her foreign policy may not hurt people on the other side.

As a member of international organizations
Another factor that determines Ghana’s foreign policy is her membership of International Organizations. Such organizations may be committed to the promotion of peace, economic emancipation, the promotion of human rights. Whatever the aims and objectives of the organization, Ghana’s foreign policy would be geared toward that direction.

International, Flag, Ghana, West Africa

Ideological factors
Until the collapse of the Soviet Union and the fall of the Berlin wall, socialism and capitalism were competing ideologies and the leading countries of these ideologies, America and Russia always want countries of the world to align with them. A decision to align with either had consequences. Ghana’s foreign policy has always been not to align with either of the two. This has led to the Non-aligned Movement. Things are different today.

Personality of the Head of State
The personality of the Head of State can also determine the foreign policy of a country. Commitment of the policy of non-interference in a neighbour’s affairs can be determined by the President of a country. In the political conflict that ensued in Cote D’voire in after a disputed election, the President of Ghana at the time, the late Evans Atta Mills refused to send troops to help restore peace though the opposition party was clamouring for it. He preferred to use quiet diplomacy instead. His method was mainly influenced by his nature.

1. Highlight six factors that determine Ghana’s foreign policy.

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