Virtual Kollage: The functions of the Security Council of the United Nations Organization

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The functions of the Security Council of the United Nations Organization



THE SECURITY COUNCIL
Introduction
One of the major organs of the United Nations is the Security Council. It is made up of fifteen members, comprising five permanent members and ten non-permanent members. The five permanent members include the US, Britain, France, Russia and China, while the ten non-permanent members are elected to serve for two years at a time.
FUNCTIONS OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL
Maintenance of World Peace
The basic duty of the Security Council is that it must maintain world peace and security. This is done by delving into any circumstance that threatens the peace of the world. It ensures that the stronger states do not bully the smaller ones or act in ways that intimidate them.

Investigate Disputes
One other function of the Security Council is to investigate potentially dangerous situations around the world that can develop into conflicts of international dimension and create dire consequences for world peace. In other words, anything that threatens world peace is worth investigating.

Admission of new members
Admission of new members into the United Nations is done by the General Assembly of the United Nations Organization. Apart from that, it has the power to suspend or expel existing members. However, all these must be done upon the recommendation of the Security Council. So in effect, it is the Security Council that admits the new members or expel existing ones.

Diplomatic and Economic Sanctions
The Security Council has the power to rally member states together to place an embargo on errand members. For example, in the 1990s the US was able to rally support at the U.N. to impose arms embargo on Iraq and also to impose a no-fly zone in that country to compel it to leave Kuwait, a neighbouring nation that Iraq had invaded. The embargo may take several other forms, including the severance of diplomatic relations with any member-state that goes out of line.

Enforcement of Decisions
The Security Council can use military might to enforce its decisions. It can also use economic blockade, with the help of members to whip rogue members to conform. For example, in 2003, the Security Council, led by the U.S. accused Iraq of possessing weapons of mass destruction and led a coalition to invade Iraq in an attempt to destroy those weapons of mass destruct. In the process, President Saddam Hussein was captured.

Enforce decisions of the International Court of Justice
The decisions of the International Court of Justice are supposed to be binding on the disputing parties but it may happen that some member states may refuse to comply with the decision. Under such a circumstance, the matter could be referred to the Security Council for to ensure that the errand state complies with the decision.

PROBLEMS OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL
The Veto Power
One of the problems of the Security Council is the use of the power of veto by its permanent members. The veto refers to the powers granted the permanent members of the Security Council to prevent a decision from being taken by the Council. Sometimes, this veto power is used to undermine peace in some areas of of the world.

Violation of International Peace
Another problem of the Security Council is that some of the permanent members have on many occasions violated the very international peace that it was established to create.After the declassification of some Central Intelligence Agency documents, it has been established the CIA was involved in the overthrow of the first president of Ghana, Dr. Kwame Nkrumah.

Shielding of smaller nations
Another problem of the Security Council is the penchant of the permanent members to protect some small nations who float resolutions after resolutions of the United Nations. The US has used many times to protect a nation like Israel. Russia has also recently used it or the threat of using it to prevent the United Nations from entering Syria to end the carnage there.

Absence of Reforms
Over the years, it has been difficult for the Security Council to reform its membership to reflect changing global political and economic trends. This is due to the fact that the set up of the Security Council seem to have been cast in iron and the permanent members have clung to the status quo.

Arms Production and Exportation
It is a big problem that the very members of the Security Council who are expected to police the world and ensure there is peace are the very people involved in armed conflicts. It has been documented that some of the permanent members of the Security Council get involved in armed conflicts all over the world, either by themselves or fighting through proxies. The arms and ammunition that are used in these wars are mostly manufactured by some of the members of the Security Council and exported to combatants in the conflicts.

Ineffectiveness
It is argued that the UN Security Council has not satisfactorily handled the conflict situations in certain parts of the world. In the Rwanda conflict, for example, it took the Security Council too long to act. Critics say if it had acted much earlier, the about 900,000 lives that were lost could have been drastically minimized.

SAMPLE QUESTIONS
1. a. Describe the composition of the Security Council of the United Nations Organization.
    b. Outline five of its functions of the Secretariat.
2. Highlight six functions that are performed by the Security Council of the United Nations organization.
3. a. Describe the composition of the Security Council of the Security Council.
    b. Which five problems are faced by the Security Council?
4. Highlight six difficulties faced by the Security Council of the United Nations Organization.



OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS ON THE UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION
Test One
1. The Secretary of State of the United Nations Organization (UNO) is appointed for a period of
A. three years
B. five years
C. seven years
D. nine years

2. The use of Veto power in the United Nations is only exercised by the
A. economic and Social Council
B. international Court of Justice
C. Trusteeship Council
D. Security Council

3. The Economic and Social Council of the United Nations Organization (UNO) is made up of
A. 25 members
B. 26 members
C. 27 members
D. 28 members

4. the most important achievement of the United Nations organization (UNO) is the
A. election of a Secretary-General from Africa
B. prevention of another World War
C. increase in its membership
D. settlement of cases of election rigging

5. The major aim of the United Nations Organization (UNO) is to
A. maintain international peace and security
B. co-ordinate and supervise the activities of specialized agencies
C. promote sports among all nations
D. stabilize the price of oil in the market

6. The World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the
A. Organization of African unity (OAU)
B. Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
C. Commonwealth of Nations
D. United Nations Organization

7.  The Headquarters of the United Nations Organization (UNO) is located at
A. New York
B. Addis Ababa
C. Vienna
D. London

8. The international organization, formed after the Second World war to guarantee international peace and security is called the
A. non-aligned Movement
B. United Nations Organization
C. League of nations
D. Cassablanca Group

9. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) is one of the specialized agencies of
A.  Organization of African Union (OAU)
B. Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
C. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
D. United Nations Organization (UNO)

10. An organ of the United Nations Organization (UNO) whose decision is binding on all members of the
A. Security Council
B. Economic and Social Council
C. Trusteeship council
D. International Court of Justice

Test Two
1. Which of the following is an organ of the United Nations Organization (UNO)?
A. Assembly of Heads of State
B. international Labour Organization
C. Council of Ministers
D. The Security Council

2. Which of the following bodies is the most representative organ of the United Nations Organization (UNO)?
A. The Economic and Social council
B. The Trusteeship Council
C. The Security Council
D. The General Assembly

3. The world organization which existed before the United Nations Organization was the
A. League of Nations
B. European Economic Community
C. Organization of African Unity (OAU)
D. Commonwealth of Nations

4. Which of the following is the most powerful organ of the United Nations Organization (UNO)? The
A. Trusteeship Council
B. Security Council
C. council of Ministers
D. Secretariat

5. The organ of the United Nations Organization responsible for negotiating agreements with the Specialized agencies is the
A. General Assembly
B. Security Council
C. Economic and Social Council
D. trusteeship Council

6. The Internal Court of Justice has its Headquarters in
A. The Hague
B. Paris
C. London
D. New York

7. Which of the following countries is a permanent member of the Security Council?
A. India
B. Canada
C. China
D. Korea

8. October 24 of each year is universally marked as the United Nations Day because on this day, the
A. United Nations Organization (UNO) officially came into existence
B. Second World War ended
C. Two Super Powers signed the United Nations Charter
D. Charter on Fundamental Human Rights was signed

9. One of the objectives of the United Nations Organization (UNO) is to
A. develop the African states
B. maintain international peace and security
C. ensure that workers all over the world are paid handsome wages and salaries
D. provide ammunition for any warring state

10. All the following organs of the United Nations Organization (UNO) have their Headquarters in New York except the
A. United Nations Development Project (UNDP)
B. World Health Organization (WHO)
C. International Court of Justice (ICJ)
D. International Labour Organization (ILO)

Test three
1. The organ of the United Nations organization which consists of all the members is called
A. General Assembly
B. Economic and Social Council
C. Trusteeship Council
D. Security Council

2. The international Court of Justice at the Hague consists of
A. 5 judges
B. 7 Judges
C. 10 Judges
D. 15 Judges

3. What is the nationality of the first African to become Secretary-General of the United Nations Organization (UNO)?
A. Ethiopia
B. Tanzania
C. Egyptian
D. Nigerian

4. Which of the following personalities did Kofi Annan succeed as the Secretary-General of the United Nations Organization?
A. U Thant
B. Dag Hammarskjold
C. Boutors Boutros Ghali
D. Perez de Cuellar

5. The main deliberative organ of the United Nations Organization (UNO) is the
A. International Court of Justice
B. Secretariat
C. Economic and Social Council
D. General Assembly

6.   The “Uniting for Peace” resolution of the United Nations Organization (UNO) was adopted in
A. 1945
B. 1947
C. 1950
D. 1960

7. The veto given to the five members of the Security Council of the United Nations Organization (UNO) is necessary because it
A. makes them respect the UNO and helps her achieve her objectives.
B. gives due respect to whom honour is due.
C. makes apartheid South Africa to fear the UNO
D. brings the big powers into agreement on the big issues.

8. The United Nations day is celebrated on
A. March 14th
B. May 5th
C. October 24th
D. September 17th

9. The United Nations Secretary-General is appointed by the
A. Secretariat
B. Economic and social Council
C. International Court of Justice
D. General Assembly

10. The international organization which was formed after the Second World War to guarantee international peace and security is the
A. World Bank
B. United Nations Organization
C. League of Nations
D. British Commonwealth of nations

Answers to the objective questions above>>
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